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Carolina Story: Virtual Museum of University History

Cover of Harper's Weekly, depicting blacks voting, November 1867

Political upheaval blocked the implementation of Battle's planned reforms. After the war, President Andrew Johnson had offered the ex-Confederates lenient terms for readmission to the Union. In 1867, however, Congress demanded a new approach. So-called "Radical Republicans" required the seceding states to establish new governments that gave black men the right to vote. A Republican coalition of northern newcomers, southern white dissenters, and African Americans took control of North Carolina and other southern states.